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Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) Horne, Weinman, Hankins, () Psychology and Health, 14, BMQ –Specific. Your views about medicines. This paper presents a novel method for assessing cognitive representations of medication: the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The BMQ-Specific assesses representations of medication prescribed for personal use and the BMQ-General assesses beliefs about medicines in general.

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Reason for this low internal consistency remains unclear. Medication beliefs and antihypertensive adherence among older adults: The development and evaluation of a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of medication.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. The level of education of most of the participants in Malta was similar to the Portuguese version where the majority of patients had completed elementary school and with the original BMQ where the majority uqestionnaire participants had a secondary level of education. The sub-scales in the French version also demonstrated good internal consistency with aboht values in the range of 0.

Table 2 Demographic characteristics of study sample. Developer of BMQ Horne et al. The same reasoning was applied for this study. SPSS for Windows step by step: I sometimes worry about becoming too dependent on my medicines. German Mahler et al. Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: Cross-cultural adaptation of the Beliefs about Medicines Questipnnaire into Portuguese.

Tavakol M, Denick R. However, alpha is very dependent on nmq number of items in a test, which might result in a reduced value of alpha.

A Brief Introduction of Skopos Theory. Item auestionnaire Table 6 and Table 7showed a varied outcome with items from one sub-scale loading elsewhere. Harmonisation of this initial translation was carried out with the Department of Translation at the University of Malta, where items were discussed within the context to be measured, in an attempt to avoid literal translations which can mislead the purpose of the study.


Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)

The final solution for Principal Component Analysis yielded a four-factor structure representing the 4 sub-scales of the BMQ, with results being comparable to previous studies out in different languages. However, this was not qufstionnaire as the recalculated alpha value of 0. Questionnxire beliefs about medicines has been of interest over the past years, with studies aiming to better understand theoretical reasons behind development of such beliefs.

Principal component analysis using varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalisation.

Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary modifications or rewording of the items. Maltese medical folklore man and the Herpetofauna in Malta: Natural remedies were part of folklore which people in Malta moved away from upon introduction of what is today considered questionnaife be conventional medicine.

This editing process was needed to create a Maltese text which is maximally suitable for the intended patients. Please review our privacy policy. Medication beliefs were evaluated using the BMQ which is divided into two sections: Cognitive debriefing results and finalisation Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary modifications or rewording of the items.

Factor loadings have been a challenge in most of the similar studies carried bq due to cultural adaptations and translated items, which might have posed a difficulty during the translation process. World Health Organisation and University of Amsterdam; bjq The BMQ-General comprises 8 items which are subdivided into two sub-scales.

The principle aim of this study was therefore, to produce a culturally and contextually appropriate version of the BMQ in the Maltese language and to assess its psychometric properties.

Journal List Pharm Pract Granada v. Recalculated alpha values are presented in Table 4. The translation was based on the SkoposTheory. All consultants accepted to participate. The principal investigator was present during the filling of the questionnaire. In summary, throughout the present study, the main problem was with the item on natural remedies, with this term presenting difficulties in conceptual equivalence amongst other translations.

Neame R, Hammond A. Table 5 shows reliability results for this study. Participants were informed that the study was on a voluntary basis, that all information would be kept confidential, and that the information would only be handled by the principal investigator and would not be accessible to the hospital staff.


The patients selected were those with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, diabetes, depression or cardiovascular disease. Ingrid GattLorna M. This study aimed to produce a culturally and contextually appropriate version of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire BMQ in the Maltese language and to assess its psychometric properties.

In the case of the BMQ-Specific items, S1, S3, S4, S7 and S10 loaded all on component 3 necessityconfirming this as the Specific-necessity scale, as all items correspond to the items developed as representative of this scale.

In each case one component was extracted. At the same time, free translation was also avoided as it could wander too far from the meaning of the original. Relationships between illness representations, treatment beliefs and the performance of self-care in heart failure: She explained that this was not a test, that there were no correct or incorrect answers.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

Received Nov 11; Accepted Feb In the original and German qusstionnaire, item G4 loaded on both the overuse and the harm scale. Table 8 Questionnairw component analysis carried out on individual sub-scales to confirm factor loading.

Int J Clin Health Psychol. Internal Consistency Cronbach alpha values are presented in Table 3. Back translation review The back translation was reviewed against the English version so as to ensure conceptual equivalence of the translation carried out, avoiding mistranslations and translation losses which would render an incomplete replication of the source questionnaire in the target one.